Mitigating disasters in developing countries essay
For this to take place, health and humanitarian actors need to dramatically improve the availability of data. It is time for an international initiative to identify the best practices, and it is time for affected countries and scientists to point out the inadequacies of responses.
Mitigation of natural disasters wikipedia
Beyond the immediate response, decision making in the allocation of resources among sectors is mostly influenced by the magnitude of the economic losses rather than by the health statistics principally the disability-adjusted life year, or DALY, losses or social costs. After the emotional response of the first few days, decision makers in a crisis react primarily to political and economic realities, not to health indicators. The physical loss includes assets, capital, and material things that can be counted: hospital beds lost, equipment and medicines destroyed, damaged or affected health service installations number and type of installations, stocks of medicines, laboratory facilities, operating rooms, and so on , and pipes and water plants destroyed. Valuation is made using all possible sources of information, from georeferenced satellite mapping and remote sensing to more conventional statistical data, direct observation, and surveys, with a reliance on information gathered immediately after the event. Poverty increases vulnerability because of the unequal opportunity for healthy and safe environments, poor education and risk awareness, and limited coping capacity. Health education and hygiene promotion efforts target populations in shelters, temporary camps, collective kitchens, or prepared food distribution centers. With respect to response, what is the effect of international assistance in terms of reductions in DALY losses that could not be achieved locally? This report clearly outlines sand production mitigation techniques and more importantly one treatment technique and one mitigation technique.
Infamilies killed by a landslide in Guatemala had been warned about their vulnerability but were unable to afford resettlement in safer and more costly areas.
Table 3 synthesizes the environmental aspects of a man-made nature which exacerbate natural disasters.
Importance of mitigation
The preferential use of expatriate health professionals; the emergency procurement and airlifting of food, water, and supplies that often are available locally or that remain in storage for long periods of time; and the tendency to adopt dramatic measures contribute to making disaster relief one of the least cost-effective health activities. Intended to strengthen the capacity of the civil protection agency, the funding is no substitute for local political commitment to assume recurrent expenses, the only guarantee of sustainability. Local engineering and architectural experts play a key role in developing the knowledge, technical abilities, and cost-effectiveness analysis to establish mitigation priorities. To Develop Risk Contingency Plan for the same project Problem Statement including Literature Review The most common risk management challenge is that risks are not properly identified. Implementation of Control Strategies: Lessons of Experience and Challenges Faced All countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have established programs and structures for disaster risk management within their ministries of health. Potential contamination of water supplies by minerals from ash; displacement of large populations for an undetermined period of time over five years in Montserrat, a small island in the Caribbean ; accompanying sanitation problems; and mental health needs are of great public health significance PAHO a. Prolonged heat waves and desert dust storms can render some regions uninhabitable, which will surely contribute to the pressure to migrate. The main reasons why there is no improvement are actually four. Distributing construction material or, preferably, cash subsidies is more cost-effective and tailored to the needs and priorities of end users. Although dusty winds blowing across the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa in the springtime months are annual weather events, they have become more severe and unseasonable. Due to the limited supply of resources available to us we need to make sure that we conserve them wisely so that these resources will be around for future generations. A cost-benefit analysis of international medical interventions prior to and during a disaster situation is also overdue. No data are available on the number of lives actually saved by mobile hospitals that is, lives that would not have been saved by local means. To Identify the relevant stakeholder for the same project 5.
In addition, improvised mass immunization campaigns, especially by external relief groups, should be discouraged in favor of opportunistically strengthening national routine immunization coverage, especially in temporary settlements.
Unsolicited and often inappropriate medical donations compete with valuable relief supplies for scarce logistical resources. Kirigia and others found a statistically significant impact of disaster-related mortality on the GDP of African countries.
Mitigating disasters in developing countries essay
These developments have made the tasks of preventing and reducing human suffering more urgent yet more difficult, and have placed the humanitarian machinery under severe strain. Loayza et al. On the national level, in January , the President issued an executive order requiring that federal agencies design and construct all new buildings to be earthquake resistant. Federal and state governments should encourage the development and implementation of active and passive control systems and other new techniques to improve the seismic resistance of both existing and new buildings. Michael Link et al. CNPq scholarship, Brazil. Disasters as a Public Health Condition According to the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, internationally reported disasters in affected million people worldwide and killed 24,—well below the preceding decade's annual average mortality of 62, IFRC Resources for Emergency Response The amount of external resources available for response, financial or material, is influenced by the type of hazard, geopolitical considerations, and the number of deaths rather than that of survivors in need of assistance. The preferential use of expatriate health professionals; the emergency procurement and airlifting of food, water, and supplies that often are available locally or that remain in storage for long periods of time; and the tendency to adopt dramatic measures contribute to making disaster relief one of the least cost-effective health activities. The purpose of disaster mitigation is to develop socially stable, economically secure, and better built to create environmentally sound communities.
A probabilistic model studied the disruptive potential of a water outage in the event of an earthquake in Los Angeles county in the United States. On the other hand, few health academicians wish to embark on projects when control groups and time for advance planning are unavailable.
A common misperception is that damage to critical health facilities is promptly repaired. June 30, Charles Bassey Public officials and other stakeholders in the Asia Pacific and MENA regions face the challenge of finding ways to strengthen their capacity to respond to natural disasters, and thereby reduce the loss of life and economic damage caused by them.
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